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Online Tourism Marketing for Sub Saharan African Countries:
Battling Stereotypes of High Risk, Hostility and Under-development

שיווק תיירות באינטרנט למדינות אפריקה שמדרום לסהרה:

התמודדות עם סטראוטיפים של סיכון גבוה, עוינות ורמת פיתוח נמוכה

מחקר מאת: ערן כתר ואלי אברהם

Attracting international tourism to the countries of Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) is a key tool for social and economic development.  However, these countries must first battle the negative stereotypes associated with African countries and improve their place image. The current study examines the use of media strategies for altering place image on the official tourism websites of SSA countries, in relation to the countries' characteristics. Twenty-nine websites were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, examining texts, slogans and images. The results indicate that official tourism websites of SSA countries use eight types of media strategies, grouped by four place characteristics. These include the country’s location, political instability, presence UNESCO World Heritage sites, and level of development. The study's discussion elaborates on the relation between place characteristics and the choice of media strategies, and proposes a framework for the use of online media strategies in place marketing.

Eran Ketter and Eli Avraham (2010). Online Tourism Marketing for Sub Saharan African Countries: Battling stereotypes of high risk, hostility and under-development. International Journal of Tourism Policy, 3(4): 318-331

Will We Be Safe There?
Analyzing Strategies for Altering Unsafe Place Images

האם בטוח לנסוע לשם?

ניתוח אסטרטגיות שיווק לשיקום דימוי של יעדי תיירות הנתפסים כלא בטוחים

מחקר מאת: אלי אברהם וערן כתר

Many countries, cities and tourist destinations are considered risky or unsafe due to terror attacks, natural disasters, epidemics, crime waves, wars, coups, racial conflicts, social-economic disorders or political unrest. The association of places with danger or bloodshed is a serious obstacle to their attractiveness and is likely to have a negative affect on tourism and investments. The goal of this article is to present three kinds of strategies adopted by places all over the world in order to be perceived as safe: Media-focused strategies, message-focused strategies and audience-focused strategies. This paper is based on a variety of qualitative research methods and is the result of careful analysis of dozens of case studies, advertisements, public relations campaigns, press releases, academic articles, news articles, and websites of cities, countries and tourist destinations that were widely considered as unsafe as the result of sudden or ongoing crises.

Eli Avraham and Eran Ketter. (2008). Will We Be Safe There? Analyzing Strategies for Altering Unsafe Place Images. Journal of Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4 (3), 196-204.

The Social Revolution of Place Marketing:
The Growing Power of Users in Social Media Campaigns

המהפכה של הרשתות החברתיות בשיווק יעדי תיירות:

יצירת קמפיינים לשיווק תיירות ברשתות חברתיות במעורבות גולשים

מחקר מאת: ערן כתר ואלי אברהם

Traditionally, place marketing campaigns can be described using a linear model of communication, in which a source is delivering a message to a receiver. However, the unique characteristics of the social media turn web users from passive audience into active participants. Using a qualitative content analysis, the current study examined the type of relations between the core components of the communication process and the growing role of online users. The findings reveal that during the use of social media in place marketing campaigns, the distinction between the components of source, message and receiver fades as users gain more power and take an active role in the creation and distribution of campaign messages.

Eran Ketter and Eli Avraham (2012). The social revolution of place marketing: The growing power of users in social media campaigns. Journal of Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 8(4): 285-294.

The current study presents media strategies to alter prolonged negative destination images, grouped in a new theoretical model. The model is based on a continuum between two groups of media strategies; on the one hand is the “cosmetic approach,” relating to strategies that mainly focus on altering the destination’s image. On the other hand is the “strategic approach,” relating to strategies that take comprehensive action, changing both the negative image and the problems causing it. The new model elaborates on the existing knowledge in the fields of tourism marketing in general and image restoration in particular, and draws conclusions for both academics and practitioners. Using qualitative content analysis, we searched for tourism marketing campaigns in various resources and media.

 

Eli Avraham and Eran Ketter (2013). Marketing Destinations with Prolonged Negative Images: Towards a new model. Tourism Geographies, 15(1): 145-164.

Marketing Destinations with Prolonged Negative Images:
Towards a New Model

שיווק יעדי תיירות בעלי דימוי שלילי מתמשך:

לקראת מודל חדש

מחקר מאת: אלי אברהם וערן כתר

One-size-fits-all? Differentiation in Destinations' Marketing Goals
and Strategies to Achieve Them

מידה אחת מתאימה לכולם?

הבדלים בין יעדי תיירות במטרות שיווקיות ובשימוש באסטרטגיות לשיווק תיירות

מחקר מאת: אלי אברהם וערן כתר

While the tourism marketing literature tends to present marketing as a ‘one-size-fits-all’ process, the current study suggests various destination marketing goals. Current literature is mainly concentrated on analyzing marketing strategies, tactics, tools and initiatives for enhancing and perceiving tourism, while other marketing goals were neglected, such as marketing unfamiliar destinations or promoting tourism during and after tourism crises. The purpose of this study is to propose a new model - “Destination Marketing Goals” (DMG) - which offers seven marketing goals for tourism destinations and the possible strategies marketers can use in order to reach each goal. The model was developed based on qualitative content analysis of campaigns on academic publications, news articles and destinations’ websites, focusing on destinations’ ads and marketing initiatives to attract tourists and visitors. The DMG model is aimed at expanding the theoretical discussion on the concept of "destination marketing" and "destination branding".

 

Eli Avraham and Eran Ketter (2015). One-size-fits-all? Differentiation in Destinations' Marketing Goals and Strategies to Achieve Them. Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 63(3): 337-349.

Marketing has a key role in tourism planning. Yet, the tourism planning literature offers a range of roles that marketing should take, extending from a secondary planning component to a leading factor that guides the entire planning process. To understand better the relative role of marketing in tourism planning, an exploratory study was conducted, looking at the interplay between tourism marketing and tourism planning in the context of regional planning. Using a quantitative content analysis of regional tourism master plans, this study aims to unveil the exact role of marketing in the tourism planning process. The study’s empirical results indicate that marketing plays a dynamic role in tourism planning, and that the specific contribution of marketing to tourism planning changes with the region’s level of development and planning needs. Based on these findings, a tentative theoretical model is proposed, portraying the dynamic relations between tourism performance and the level of marketing integration in tourism planning. This model replaces a prevailing theoretical notion, treating the role of marketing in tourism planning as a static, ‘one-size-fits-all’ process.

 

Eran Ketter, Yoel Mansfeld and Eli Avraham (2016). The role of marketing in tourism planning: overplay, underplay or interplay? Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 64(2): 135-148.

Destination Image Restoration on Facebook:
The Case Study of Nepal's Gurkha Earthquake

שימוש בפייסבוק לשיקום דימוי שלילי של יעדי תיירות:

מקרה הבוחן של שיווק תיירות לנפאל בעקבות רעידת האדמה ב-25 באפריל 2015

מחקר מאת: ערן כתר

According to the image repair theory, destination image is a critical factor that should be cultivated and protected from crises. One important communication channel in times of crisis is the social media, with Facebook as the world's leading social network. In spite of Facebook's importance as a communication platform, it has received very limited attention in the literature of tourism crisis communication and image restoration. To bridge over this gap, the current study analysed the Nepal Tourism Board’s use of Facebook to restore its image following the Gurkha earthquake - an earthquake of 7.8 magnitude that took place on April 25th 2015. For this purpose, a qualitative content analysis was conducted on the posts, content, pictures and links posted on the Nepal Tourism Board’s Facebook page from April 25th to May 24th, 2015. The results of the study have shed light on the role of Facebook as a mean of image restoration and on its unique characteristics as a multi-functional tool that can be used to address diverse audiences, to conduct both formal and informal interactions, to post various kinds of information, to bypass the news media and to serve as an additional distribution channel.

 

Eran Ketter (2016). Destination Image Restoration on Facebook: The Case Study of Nepal's Gurkha Earthquake. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 28: 66-72.

Destination marketing during and following crises:
combating negative images in Asia

שיווק תיירות במהלך ולאחר משבר:

התמודדות עם משברים ודימוי שלילי בשיווק תיירות לאסיה

מחקר מאת: אלי אברהם וערן כתר

The goal of this study is to analyze which strategies Asian officials and marketers have adopted in order to combat stereotypes, negative perceptions, and crises in order to repair destination images and bring back visitors. The study includes qualitative content analyses of news reports, press interviews, and campaigns in order to uncover media policy, strategies, events, and marketing initiatives used since 2008. The conceptual framework used was the “multi-step model for altering place image”, which offers three types of strategies to use in order to repair a destination’s negative image during and after a crisis: source, message, and audience.

Eli Avraham & Eran Ketter (2016): Destination marketing during and following crises: combating negative images in Asia. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing.